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Subject: Assessment Types


Assessments may measure student learning and performance via a range of activities and assignments that give students the opportunity to demonstrate essential skills and knowledge indicative of the specific dimensions of the learning outcome to be assessed. Activities may include formative and summative assessments, group projects, portfolio reviews, etc.

Student Artifact

A student artifact is work produced directly by the student, offering concrete, documented evidence of learning and performance. Examples include papers, projects, presentation slides, etc. that represent a student’s knowledge, skill, and achievement of identified goals and learning outcomes.

Direct Assessment

A direct assessment gathers tangible evidence of what students have and have not learned based on student performance that demonstrates the learning itself. Examples include class assignments, essays, presentations, test results, projects, portfolios, and directly observed simulations or task performance demonstrations.

Indirect Assessment

An indirect assessment acquires evidence of students’ own impressions of their learning rather than actual demonstrations of outcome achievement. Examples include surveys, questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, and reflective essays.

Embedded Assessment

An embedded assessment is a means of gathering information about student learning that is built into and a natural part of the teaching-learning process. Classroom assignments that are evaluated to assign students a grade can often also be used to assess individual student achievement of established learning outcomes.

Formative Assessment

Formal and informal assessment procedures, including diagnostic testing, are conducted by teachers during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities so that student learning continuously improves.

Summative Assessment

Evaluation of student learning, skill, acquisition, and academic achievement at the conclusion of an instructional period – typically at the end of a project, unit, course, semester, program, or school year. Summative Assessment may include comparison of pre and post test results.

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